INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL THEORY

11. Justice in socialist Tradition

In the socialist society, justice implies ‘end of exploitation by one class (capitalist class) to another class (proletariat class) and bringing a society that accord with the ideals of equality. In other words, the ultimate aim is to build a ‘classless and stateless society’. Socialism necessarily demands seizing of wealth of those person who posses it and redistribute it evenly in the society. Under the presumptuous society, justice will be administered under the principle ‘from each according to his/her ability, to each according to his/her needs’. (Heywood, 2004: 295.) The socialists have fundamental dilemmas over the distribution of social goods on the ground that not everyone can contribute labour and among the contributors also, each labour contributes in their different capacities. Justice in Liberal Traditions Liberalism is a world view/political doctrine which believe on the protection and enhancement of individual’s freedom and equality. Liberalism essentially emphasizes on rights and liberties of individuals and how institutions can assure these rights. In the liberal tradition, strong commitment is emphasised on the idea that political and social arrangement should enable individuals to be effective agents. In other words, liberals reject both the utilitarian principle of ‘maximum happiness of the maximum number’ and socialist notion of ‘redistribution of wealth’ as they completely subordinate individual’s rights and liberty to the society. On the other hand, liberals advocate that a principle of justice should guarantee individual’s rights and liberty in the allocation of ‘burdens and benefits’ of society. They further argue that under conditions of normal states of affairs, individual’s rights and liberties should not be violated for the welfare of a society as rights of individuals are sacrosanct. (Rawls 2008: 3-4) Therefore, justice liberal traditions underpins with the development of rules and institutions through which social goods can be distributed ‘fairly’ in the society without trespassing upon the rights and freedom of individuals.